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Table 1 The 10-dimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards money

From: Culture, money attitudes and economic outcomes

I. Cognitive component Item: ‘to what extent do you agree with the following phrases:’
5-point Likert scale: (1) strongly disagree; (2) disagree; (3) neither agree nor disagree; (4) agree; (5) strongly agree
 1 Money as an achievement ‘For me, money is a means to achieve objectives’.
 2 Money as status and respect ‘For me, money is a means to obtain prestige, social recognition’.
 3 Money as freedom ‘For me, money is the freedom to do what you want’.
 4 Money as power ‘For me, money is a means to obtain power’.
 5 Money as a social facilitator ‘For me, money is a means to make friends’.
 6 Money as an end in itself (materialism) ‘For me, money is something I am prepared to obtain by any means I can’.
II. Behavioural component Item: ‘during your childhood and adolescence, did your parents tell you about or teach you the following:’
5-point Likert scale: (1) never; (2) rarely; (3) sometimes; (4) often; (5) very often
 7 Hedonist behaviour ‘You should use money to enjoy yourself’.
 8 Savings-oriented behaviour ‘You should put money aside’.
 9 Balanced-type behaviour (keeping a balanced budget) ‘You should not spend more money than you have’.
 10 Solvency behaviour (do not have any debts) ‘You should never have debts’.