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Table 2 Static regression table (immediate effects only), 1987–2016

From: Are apprenticeships business cycle proof?

 (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Δlog(Pop. aged 16)t,t−10.249***0.274***0.266***0.244***0.243***
 (0.061)(0.070)(0.069)(0.060)(0.059)
ΔUnemployedt,t−1− 1.542***  − 1.486***− 1.290***
 (0.361)  (0.350)(0.397)
\(\Delta \text {Unemployed}^{\Delta >0}_{t,t-1}\)    − 0.108
     (0.107)
ΔGDP growtht,t−1 − 0.009   
  (0.054)   
ΔGDP growtht−1,t−2  0.108**0.085*0.116*
   (0.052)(0.044)(0.066)
\(\Delta \mathrm {GDP\;growth^{\Delta <0}_{t-1,t-2}}\)    − 0.069
     (0.114)
\(\Delta \text {Trend}^{1987-1991}_{t,t-1}\)0.0010.0060.0070.0020.002
 (0.004)(0.005)(0.005)(0.004)(0.004)
\(\Delta \text {Trend}^{1992-2016}_{t,t-1}\)0.033***0.037***0.036***0.033***0.033***
 (0.009)(0.011)(0.011)(0.009)(0.008)
Constant− 0.025***− 0.029***− 0.029***− 0.025***− 0.025***
 (0.008)(0.010)(0.010)(0.008)(0.008)
Observations780780780780780
Number of region2626262626
  1. Dependent variable: Δlog(Apprenticeshipst,t−1). First difference model with panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE, in brackets). ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1