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Table 4 Levin-Lin-Chu unit root test. H0: panels contain unit roots

From: Are apprenticeships business cycle proof?

Variable Without trend   With trend
  Adjusted t p value   Adjusted t p value
log(Apprenticeships) 0.045 0.058   − 4.272 0.000
log(Population aged 16) − 0.613 0.270   0.950 0.829
Unemployment rate − 13.940 0.000   − 11.999 0.000
GDP growth rate − 18.625 0.000   − 16.787 0.000
Error terms of dynamic regressions   
Specification 1 − 20.173 0.000    
Specification 2 − 23.412 0.000    
Specification 3 − 22.494 0.000