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Table 2 Mean of covariates considered in the estimations using the German data in the total sample, the late intervention group, the intermediate intervention group, and the early intervention group, respectively

From: Timing matters: the impact of response measures on COVID-19-related hospitalization and death rates in Germany and Switzerland

Variable Total sample Late timing Intermediate timing Early timing Curfew No curfew
  N=408 N=81 N=275 N=52 N=149 N=259
Population 203,103 276,529 197,295 119,444 158,786 228,598
Population density 671 929 665 301 440 804
Income per capita (euro) 37,224 41,686 36,505 34,076 38,325 36,591
Share of population aged 65+ 0.222 0.208 0.221 0.244 0.226 0.219
80+ mortality rate (per 1000 inhabitants), 2017 6.52 5.96 6.52 7.36 6.68 6.42
Share of respiratory disease-related deaths, 2016 0.07 0.069 0.071 0.067 0.066 0.072
Hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants 6.31 6.08 6.25 6.97 6.69 6.09
Share of confirmed infections aged 80+ prior to lockdown 0.019 0.024 0.018 0.014 0.022 0.017
Initial growth trend for confirmed cases in log points 0.209 0.23 0.234 0.049 0.185 0.224
Ban of events with > 1000 participants 0.917 0.889 0.924 0.923 1 0.869
Curfew 0.365 0.247 0.378 0.481 1 0
Ban of groups of > 5 persons (prior to contact ban/curfew) 0.223 0.21 0.236 0.173 0 0.351
Permission to meet with 1 non-household member 0.711 0.802 0.698 0.635 0.262 0.969
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