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Table 1 Descriptive statistics

From: Nominal stability over two centuries

  CPI WPI DEFL NGDP
  Mean Std. Mean Std. Mean Std. Mean Std.
1804–1849: Competing currencies −0.8 13.3 −1.4 10.7     
1850–1873: Bimetallism 2.9 9.3 2.2 6.6 3.2 11.6 3.9 5.2
1874–1906: Gold Standard −0.7 3.1 −1.1 4.3 −1.3 5.6 1.5 4.0
1907–1944: World War period 2.3 8.1 2.3 14.5 2.3 8.5 2.7 9.1
1945–1973: Bretton Woods 2.3 2.1 1.0 3.3 3.6 2.7 6.7 3.9
1974–1999: Monetary targeting 3.2 2.5 1.4 4.1 3.0 3.2 3.8 3.2
2000–2017: Inflation targeting 0.5 0.9 −0.1 2.3 0.6 0.9 1.6 2.4
  1. Mean and standard deviation of log-changes in percent