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Table 3 Dynamic regression table, 1987–2016

From: Are apprenticeships business cycle proof?

 (1)(2)(3)
log(Apprenticeships)t−1− 0.422***− 0.392***− 0.418***
 (0.040)(0.041)(0.040)
Immediate, transitory effects   
Δlog(Population aged 16)t,t−10.247***0.259***0.239***
 (0.058)(0.065)(0.057)
ΔUnemployedt,t−1− 1.765*** − 1.595***
 (0.332) (0.339)
ΔGDP growtht,t−1 0.1090.054
  (0.068)(0.058)
Permanent effects   
log(Population aged 16)t−10.280***0.262***0.264***
 (0.042)(0.045)(0.042)
Unemployedt−1− 0.313 − 0.285
 (0.239) (0.237)
GDP growtht−1 0.285***0.141*
  (0.095)(0.082)
Trend1987−1991− 0.006*− 0.002− 0.005
 (0.003)(0.004)(0.003)
Trend1992−20150.003***0.003***0.003***
 (0.000)(0.001)(0.000)
Observations780780780
Number of region262626
Regional fixed effectsYesYesYes
  1. Dependent variable: Δlog(Apprenticeshipst,t−1). ADL model in EC form, with panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE, in brackets). ***p <0.01, **p <0.05, *p <0.1